The UCL Centre for Global Health Economics

Carlos Grijalva Eternod

Carlos Grijalva-Eternod is a researcher at the UCL Institute for Global Health, following his training as a clinical dietician in Mexico and further specialisation in public health and child development in the UK.  His work focuses on understanding the developmental origins of undernutrition and chronic diseases, the assessing of nutritional and well-being status among infants, children and adults living in vulnerable settings, and the impact evaluation of nutrition-sensitive interventions, such as cash transfers, that are aimed at improving such status. Carlos has worked in Latin America, Africa, Central Asia and Europe with vulnerable communities that experience poverty, environmental challenges such as droughts, or have been forcefully displaced such as refugees. He lives in London.



REFANI: Carlos is part of the Consortium for Research on Food Assistance for Nutritional Impact (REFANI), an international, 3-year, £3.2 million research project funded by the Department for International Development (DFID). The REFANI project is examining the nutritional impact and cost-effectiveness of cash and/or voucher-based food assistance interventions. The aim is to create new evidence to inform decisions on the prevention of acute undernutrition in emergencies.

BIVA: Carlos is part of the team, funded by Global Grand Challenges scheme of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation that is using bioelectric impedance vector analysis (BIVA) to measure nutritional status in children with pneumonia in Malawi in order to improve treatment. Malnutrition is associated with poor prognosis in pneumonia but is difficult to assess accurately. BIVA measures the body’s bioelectric properties to predict physiological parameters such as hydration and body mass of specific body regions. The study will develop a protocol and evaluate BIVA for assessing nutritional status in children with pneumonia compared to current assessment methods.

Double Burden of Malnutrition in Forcibly Displaced Populations: Carlos is part of the UCL Nutrition in Crisis Research Team, in collaboration with UNHCR that provides technical assistance for the assessment of nutritional needs. Our work indicates a problem of obesity in these vulnerable communities along with the persistence of under-nutrition.

Selected Papers

Marphatia AA, Cole TJ, Grijalva-Eternod CS, Wells JC. Associations of gender inequality with child malnutrition and mortality across 96 countries. Global Health, Epidemiology and Genomics 2016;1:e6 DOI:10.1017/ghge.2016.1

Fry H, Grijalva-Eternod C. Forest conservation in Central and West Africa: Opportunities and risks for gender equity. In: Carol J, Pierce Colfer, Marlène Elias, Bimbika Sijapati Basnett. Gender and Forests: Climate Change, Tenure, Value Chains and Emerging Issues. Routledge 2016

Grijalva-Eternod CS, Wells JC, Girma T, Kæstel P, Admassu B, Friss H, Andersen GS. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition: evidence from a cohort of Ethiopian infants. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2015; 102(3):593-99 DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.114.106419

Sibson V, Grijalva-Eternod C, Bourahla L, Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Morrison J, Puett C, Trenouth L, Seal AJ. The REFANI-N study protocol: a cluster-randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of early initiation and longer duration of emergency/seasonal unconditional cash transfers for the prevention of acute malnutrition among children, 6-59 months, in Tahoua, Niger. BMC Public Health 2015;15:1289. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-2640-2.

Grijalva-Eternod CS, Wells JC, Cortina-Borja M, Salse-Ubach N, Tondeur MC, Dolan C, Meziani C, Wilkinson C, Spiegel P, Seal AJ. The double burden of obesity and malnutrition in a protracted emergency setting: a cross-sectional study of Western Sahara refugees. PLOS Med 2012;9(10):e1001320. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001320.

Mustapha J, Grijalva-Eternod CS, Haghparast-Bidgoli H. Economic and Gender Inequalities Are Important Determinants of Anaemia and Acute Malnutrition in Children Aged <5 years in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Working paper 2012