The UCL Centre for Global Health Economics

Prof Sally Grantham-McGregor

Prof Sally Grantham-McGregor has run many projects in low and middle income countries (LMIC) involving child nutrition and development and supervised many PhD/MSc students from LMICs. Prof Grantham-McGregor established a research group at the University of the West Indies which investigated the effects of malnutrition and deprivation on child development. The group designed low cost, feasible interventions and showed that a home visiting program in early childhood had sustained cognitive, educational, mental health and economic benefits up to 22 years of age. The group also ran trials on the effects of school feeding and deworming programs on the children’s cognition and school achievement.

After moving to the Institute of Child Health, Prof Grantham-McGregor helped establish a similar child development research group at icddr,b in Bangladesh. The group has conducted many trials of psychosocial stimulation and different types of nutritional supplementation with disadvantaged children. The group also showed that poor children show deficits in cognition compared to better off families that are apparent from age 7 months and increase through to 6 years.

At the University of West Indies Prof Grantham-McGregor continues to collaborate with the Jamaican group now run by S Walker. They are currently running a 30 year follow up of the children who participated in an early childhood intervention, and are following the second generation of children born to the participants. The intervention used in these studies has recently been developed into a web package “Reach-Up” including all materials necessary to run a programme. The group tested the package in trials in Zimbabwe, Brazil, Guatemala and China. Trials have now been in 15 countries and it is being developed into national programs in Peru, China, Jamaica, and Bangladesh.

At the Institute of Fiscal Studies (IFS), London and Yale University, Prof Grantham-McGregor is collaborating with O Attanasio and C Meghir in two trials in India that concern early child development interventions. They are comparing different approaches to going to scale with the intervention. They have also researched how to measure child development and examined the validity of tests currently being used.

Prof Grantham-McGregor is also collaborating with J Hamadani at icddr,b Bangladesh, taking to scale an early child development (ECD) intervention by integrating into health services. Recently they assessed the harm done to families by the COVID-19 lockdown.

Prof Grantham-McGregor has consulted for UNICEF, UNESCO, PAHO, WHO, FAO, Wellcome trust, World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, Open Society Foundation, Ford Foundation and several national governments. These include advising the Peruvian government on starting a national program of Early Child Development (ECD) intervention, and advising the China Research Foundation on establishing an early childhood program.

Honours and Awards

1995: Ministry of Health, Jamaica for contribution to Maternal Child Health Programmes through research

2001: Caribbean Child Development Center, University of West Indies. For contribution to Child Development

2001: Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, UK

2002: The Caribbean Health Research Council Award for achievements in mental development and human nutrition

2003: UNICEF Caribbean Award for Excellence in Child Research, 2003

2017: International Developmental Pediatrics Association: International Mentor Award

2019: ReachUp: award for contribution to early childhood interventions in Jamaica and Internationally

2019: The China Development Research Foundation, Certificate of Honor

Publications in refereed Journals

1. Grantham-McGregor SM & Back EH. Breast feeding in Kingston, Jamaica. Arch Dis Child, 45, 404-409, 1970.

2. Grantham-McGregor SM & Back EH. A note on infant feeding in Kingston. West Ind Med J XIX, 11-115, 1970.

3. Grantham-McGregor SM & Back EH. Gross motor development in Jamaican infants. Develop Med Child Neurol, 13, 582-589, 1971.

4. Grantham-McGregor SM & Hawke WA. Developmental assessment of Jamaican infants. Develop Med Child Neurol, 13, 582-589, 1971.

5. Grantham-McGregor SM & Back EH. Family planning during the first year after delivery by women in Kingston, Jamaica. West Ind Med J, 21 (4) 249-254, 1972.

6. Grantham-McGregor SM, Desai P & Back EH. A longitudinal study of infant growth in Kingston, Jamaica. Hum Bio, 44, 549-55, 1972.

7. Grantham-McGregor SM & Desai P. Head circumferences of Jamaican infants. Develop Med Child Neurol 15 (4), 441-446, 1973.

8. Grantham-McGregor SM, Desai P & Milner P. Haematological levels in Jamaican infants. Arch Dis Child, 49, 525-530, 1974.

9. Grantham-McGregor SM & Desai P. A home visiting intervention programme with Jamaican mothers and children. Develop Med Child Neurol, 17, 605-613,1975.

10. Grantham-McGregor SM, Desai P & Buchanan E. The identification of infants at risk of malnutrition in Kingston, Jamaica. Trop. Geo. Med. 29, 165-171, 1977.

11. Grantham-McGregor SM, Stewart M & Desai P. A new look at the assessment of mental development in young children recovering from severe malnutrition. Dev. Med. Child. Neurol. 20, 773-778, 1978.

12. Stewart M & Grantham-McGregor SM. The environment of young children in a Kingston hospital. West. Ind. Med. J., 38, 30-35, 1979.

13. Grantham-McGregor SM, Stewart M, Powell C & Schofield W. Effect of stimulation on mental development of the malnourished children. Lancet ii (letter), 200-201, 1979.

14. Grantham-McGregor SM, Stewart M & Desai P. The relationship between hospitalization, social background, severe protein energy malnutrition and mental development in young Jamaican children. Ecol. Food Nutr., 9, 151-156 1980.

15. Grantham-McGregor SM, Stewart ME & Schofield W. The effect of long term psychological stimulation on the mental development of severely malnourished children. Lancet ii 785-789 1980.

16. Powell C & Grantham-McGregor SM. The association between nutritional status, school achievement and school attendance in twelve year old Jamaican children. West Ind. Med. J. 29, 247- 253, 1980.

17. Grantham-McGregor SM, Stewart M & Schofield W. Stimulation and mental development of malnourished infants. Lancet i, (letter), 89, 1980.

18. Sheffer M, Grantham-McGregor SM & Ismail SJ. The social environment of malnourished children compared with that of other children in Jamaica. J. Biosoc. Sci. 13, 19-29, 1981.

19. Grantham-McGregor SM & Desai P. A simple evaluation of speech by adults to young children in two types of day care centres in Kingston, Jamaica. J. Trop. Paediat. 27, 92-95 1981.

20. Knight J & Grantham-McGregor SM. A Jamaican child to child project - an interim report. Cajanus 14, 43-52, 1981.

21. Grantham-McGregor SM. The relationship between developmental level and different types of malnutrition in children. A short communication. Hum. Nutr: Clin. Nutr. 36C, 319-320 1982.

22. Grantham-McGregor SM & Buchanan E. The development of an adopted child recovering from severe malnutrition. A case report. Hum. Nutr: Clin. Nutr. 36C, 251-256, 1982.

23. Grantham-McGregor SM, Powell C, Stewart M & Schofield WN. A longitudinal study of growth and development of young Jamaican children recovering from severe protein-energy malnutrition. Develop. Med. Child Neurol. 24, 321-331. 1982.

24. Grantham-McGregor SM. Infant nutrition and its effects on child development. Int. Nutr. 1983.

25. Grantham-McGregor SM, Landman J & Desai P. Child rearing in poor urban Jamaica. Child Care: Hlth Develop. 9, 57-71, 1983.

26. Grantham-McGregor SM, Schofield WN & Harris L. Effect of psychosocial stimulation on mental development of severely malnourished children: An interim report. Pediat. 72, 239-243, 1983.

27. Powell C, Grantham-McGregor SM & Elston M. An evaluation of giving the Jamaican government school meal to a class of children. Hum. Nutr: Clin. Nutr. 37C, 381-388, 1983.

28. Landman J & Grantham-McGregor SM. The first five years in Kingston, Jamaica. Children & Society. 2, 96-99, 1984.

29. Grantham-McGregor SM. Cognitive abilities and chronic undernutrition, a review. Hum. Nutr: Clin.Nutr. 38C, 83-94, 1984.

30. Hibbert J, Jackson AA & Grantham-McGregor S. Plasma concentrations of N-acetyl-neuraminic acid in severe malnutrition. British J. Nutr. 53, 11-16, 1984.

31. Landman J, Grantham-McGregor SM & Desai P. Child rearing practices in Kingston, Jamaica. Caribbean Quarterly, 29, 40-52, 1985.

32. Powell C & Grantham-McGregor SM. The ecology of nutritional status and development in young children in Kingston, Jamaica. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 41, 1322-1331, 1985.

33. Knight J & Grantham-McGregor SM. Using primary school children to improve child rearing practices in rural Jamaica. Child Care: Hlth Develop. 11, 81-90, 1985.

34. Chambers C & Grantham-McGregor SM. Patterns of mental development among young, middle-class Jamaican children. J Child Psychol Psychiat 27, 117-123, 1986.

35. Grantham-McGregor SM, Schofield W & Powell C. The development of severely malnourished children who received psychosocial stimulation: six year follow-up. Pediat, 79, 247-254, 1987.

36. Grantham-McGregor SM. Ethics of research in childhood malnutrition. Lancet, ii (letter) 630-631, 1987.

37. Simeon D & Grantham-McGregor SM. Cognitive function, undernutrition, and missed breakfast. Lancet, ii (letter) 737-738, 1987.

38. Fletcher P, Grantham-McGregor SM & Powell C. Nutritional status of young children from poor urban neighbourhoods in an economic depression. Ecol Food Nutr, 21, 167-172, 1988.

39. Grantham-McGregor SM. Studies in behaviour and malnutrition in Jamaica, Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 82; 7-9. 1988.

40. Simeon D & Grantham-McGregor SM. The effects of missing breakfast on the cognitive functions of school children of differing nutritional status. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 49, 646-653, 1989.

41. McDonald K, Grantham-McGregor SM & Chang S. Social stimulation of the severely malnourished child; a home training programme. Ind. Journ. Pediat. 56, no 1, 98-103, 1989.

42. Grantham-McGregor SM, Schofield W & Haggard D. Maternal- child interaction in survivors of severe malnutrition, who received psychosocial stimulation. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 43, 45-52, 1989.

43. Powell C & Grantham-McGregor SM. The effect of home visiting of varying frequency on child development. Pediat. 84, 157-164, 1989.

44. Heikens GT, Schofield WN, Dawson S & Grantham-McGregor SM. The Kingston project: 1. The growth of malnourished children during rehabilitation in the community given a high energy supplement of 3.1 mJ per day. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 43, 145-160, 1989.

45. Grantham-McGregor SM, Powell C & Fletcher P. Stunting, severe malnutrition and mental development in young children. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 43, no. 6, 403-409, 1989.

46. Walker S & Grantham-McGregor SM. Growth and development of West Indian children. Part 1.- Growth. West Ind. Med. J. 38, 197- 204, 1989.

47. Grantham-McGregor SM, Powell CA & Walker S. Nutritional supplements, stunting, and child development. Lancet, ii (letter) 89, 1989.

48. Walker S & Grantham-McGregor SM Growth and development of West Indian children. Part 2.- Development. West Ind. Med. J. 39, 12-19, 1990.

49. Simeon S & Grantham-McGregor SM. Nutritional Deficiencies and children's behaviour and mental development. Nutr. Res. Revs. 3, 1-24, 1990.

50. Walker SP, Powell CA & Grantham-McGregor SM. Dietary intakes and activity levels of stunted and non-stunted children in Kingston, Jamaica. Part I: Dietary intakes. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr.44, 527-534, 1990.

51. Meeks Gardner J, Grantham-McGregor SM, Chang SM & Powell C. Dietary intakes and observed activity of stunted and non- stunted children in Kingston, Jamaica. Part II: Activity. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 44, 585-593, 1990.

52. Walker SP, Grantham-McGregor SM, Powell CA, Fletcher P & Himes J. Bioelectrical impedance, anthropometry and body composition in stunted and non-stunted children. Eur. J.Clin. Nutr. 44, 763-768, 1990

53. Knight J, Grantham-McGregor SM, Ismail S & Ashley D. Child to child in rural Jamaica. Child Care: Hlth Develop, 17, 49-58, 1991.

54. Clarke NMA, Grantham-McGregor SM & Powell CA. Nutrition and health predictors of school failure in Jamaican children. Ecol Food Nutr, 26, 47-57, 1991.

55. Walker SP, Grantham-McGregor SM & Powell CA. Stunting and metabolic rate. Lancet, 337, 110 (letter) 1991.

56. Grantham-McGregor SM, Walker S & Powell P. Nutritional supplementation and mental development. Lancet, 338, 758 (letter) 1991.

57. Walker SP, Powell CA, Grantham-McGregor SM, Himes J & Chang S. Nutritional supplementation, psychosocial stimulation and growth of stunted children; The Jamaican study. Am J Clin Nutr, 54, 642-648, 1991.

58. Grantham-McGregor SM, Stewart M & Powell C. Behaviour observations of severely malnourished children in a Jamaican hospital. Devel Med Child Neurol, 33, 706-714, 1991.

59. Grantham-McGregor SM, Powell CA, Walker SP & Himes J. Nutritional supplementation, psychosocial stimulation and development of stunted children: The Jamaican Study. Lancet, 338, 1-5, 1991.

60. Callendar JEM, Grantham-McGregor SM, Walker S & Cooper E. Trichuris infection and mental development. Lancet, 339,181 (letter) 1992.

61. Nokes C, Grantham-McGregor SM, Sawyer AW, Cooper ES & Bundy DAP. Parasitic helminth infection and cognitive function in school children. Proc Roy Soc Lond, 247, 77-81, 1992.

62. Walker SP, Grantham-McGregor SM, Powell CA, Himes JH & Simeon D. Effects of morbidity on the growth of stunted and non-stunted children and interactions with supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr 56, 504-510, 1992.

63. Walker SP, Robinson RD, Powell CA & Grantham-McGregor SM. Stunting, intestinal parasitism and the home environment. Trans. Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg, 86, 331-332, 1992.

64. Grantham-McGregor SM & Cumper G. Jamaican studies in nutrition and child development and their implications for national development. Proc Nut Soc, 51, 71-79, 1992.

65. Fletcher P, Simeon D & Grantham-McGregor SM. Risk indicators of childhood undernutrition in Kingston, Jamaica. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg, 85, 566-569, 1992.

66. Grantham-McGregor SM. Assessments of the effects of nutrition on cognitive functions and behaviour in children. Am J Clin Nutr (Supp), 57, 25, 303-309, 1993.

67. Connolly K & Grantham-McGregor SM. Key Issues in generating a psychological testing protocol. Am J Clin Nutr (Supp), 57, 25, 317-318, 1993.

68. Nokes C, Grantham-McGregor SM, Sawyer AW, Cooper ES, Robinson BA & Bundy DAP. Moderate to heavy infections of Trichuris Trichiura affect cognitive function in Jamaican children. Parasitology. Volume 104, Issue 3 1992 , pp. 539-547

69. Grantham-McGregor SM. Health and human potential: Malnutrition and human development. Pop Develop Rev 1993

70. Grantham-McGregor SM, Walker SP, Himes JH & Powell CA. The effect of nutritional supplementation and stunting on morbidity in young children. The Jamaican study. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg, 87, 109-113, 1993.

71. Simeon DT, Grantham-McGregor SM, Walker SP & Powell C. Effects of a hurricane on growth and morbidity in children from low-income families in Kingston, Jamaica. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg, 87, 526-528, 1993.

72. Callender J, Grantham-McGregor Sm, Walker SP & Cooper E. Developmental levels and nutritional status of children with the Trichuris Dysentery Syndrome. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 87, 528-529, 1993.

73. Grantham-McGregor SM, Powell C, Walker S, Chang S & Fletcher P. The long term follow-up of severely malnourished children who participated in an intervention programme. Child Dev, 65, 428-439, 1994.

74. Meeks Gardner JM & Grantham-McGregor SM. Physical activity, undernutrition and child development. Proc Nutr Soc 53, 241-248, 1994.

75. Callender J, Grantham-McGregor SM, Walker SP & Cooper E. Treatment effects in Trichuris Dysentery Syndrome. Acta Pediat, 83, 1182-1187, 1994.

76. Powell C, Walker SP, Himes J & Grantham-McGregor SM. Relationships between physical growth, mental development and nutritional supplementation in stunted children: the Jamaican study. Acta Pediat, 84, 22-29, 1995.

77. Simeon D, Callendar J, Wong M & Grantham-McGregor SM. Trichiuriasis, academic performance and nutritional status in school children. Acta Pediat, 83, 1188-1193, 1994.

78. Baddeley A, Meeks Gardner J & Grantham-McGregor SM. Cross-cultural cognition: Developing tests for developing countries. Appl Cog Psychol 9, 5173-5195, 1995.

79. Meeks Gardner JM, Grantham-McGregor SM, Chang S, Himes J & Powell C. Activity and behavioural development in stunted and non-stunted children and response to nutritional supplementation. Child Dev 66: 1785-1797, 1995.

80. Wong M, Simeon D, Powell C & Grantham-McGregor SM. The prevalence of Trichuris Trichiura and Ascaris Lumbricoides in primary school children in Jamaica. West Ind Med J 43, 121-122, 1994.

81. Grantham-McGregor S. A review of studies of the effect of severe malnutrition on mental development. J Nutr 85, 22335-22385-1995.

82. Ramdath DD, Simeon DT, Wong MS & Grantham-McGregor SM. Iron status of school children with varying intensities of Trichuris trichiura infection. Parasit 110, 347-351, 1995..

83. Simeon DT, Grantham-McGregor SM & Callendar J. Growth, school achievement and school attendance in children after treatment of Trichuris trichiura. J Nutr 125, 1875-1883, 1995.

84. Simeon DT, Grantham-McGregor SM & Wong MS. Trichuris trichiura infection and cognition in children: Results of a randomised clinical trial. Parasit 110, 457-464, 1995.

85. Chandler AM, Walker SP, Connolly K & Grantham-McGregor SM. School breakfast improves verbal fluency in undernourished Jamaican children. J Nutr 125, 894-900, 1995.

86. Walker SP, Grantham-McGregor SM, Himes JH & Williams S. Anthropometry in adolescent girls in Kingston Jamaica. Ann Hum Biol 23;23-29, 1996.

87. Grantham-McGregor SM, Powell C, Himes JH & Walker SP. Stunting and mental development in children. Nut Res 16:1821-1828, 1996.

88. Walker SP, Granthan-McGregor SM, Himes J & Williams SP. Nutritional status, health behaviour and school achievement levels in adolescent girls in Kingston, Jamaica. Proc Nutr Soc 55; 333-343, 1996.

89. Meeks Gardner JM, Grantham-McGregor SM & Baddeley A. The effects of mild to moderate Trichuris trichiura infection on children’s cognition. Ann Trop Med 90:55-63, 1996.

90. Walker SP, Grantham-McGregor SM, Himes JH & Powell CA. The relationships between wasting and linear growth in stunted children. Acta Paed 85: 666-669, 1996.

91. Grantham-McGregor SM. The importance of play. Child Health Dialogue, 4th quarter, Issue 5: 1996.

92. Chang SM, Walker SP, Himes JH & Grantham-McGregor SM. The effects of breakfast on classroom behaviour in rural Jamaican school children. Food Nutr Bull, Sep. 17: 248-257, 1996.

93. Walker SP, Grantham-McGregor SM, Himes JH, Powell CA & Chang SM. Early childhood supplementation does not benefit the long-term growth of stunted children in Jamaica. J Nutr, 126: 3017-3024, 1996.

94. Grantham-McGregor SM. Breakfast and educational performance in school children. Postgrad Doct Carib, Vol. 13, No. 1, 28-32, 1997.

95. Gaskin P., Walker SP, Forrester TE & Grantham-McGregor SM. The validity of recalled birthweight in developing countries. Amer J Pub Hlth, 87: No.1 1997.

96. Sternberg RJ, Powell C., McGrane P. & Grantham-McGregor S. Effects of a parasitic infection on cognitive functioning. J Exp. Psychol. Applied 3: 67-76 1997

97. Himes JH, Walker SP, Williams S., Bennett F. & Grantham-McGregor SM. A method to estimate prevalence of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anaemia in adolescent Jamaican girls. Amer J Clin Nutr.65: 831-836 1997

98. Grantham-McGregor SM, Walker SP, Chang SM & Powell CA. Effects of early childhood supplementation with and without stimulation on later development of stunted Jamaican children. Amer J Clin Nutr 66: 247-254 1997

99. Hutchinson SE, Powell CA, Walker SP, Chang SM & Grantham-McGregor SM. Nutrition, anaemia, geohelminth infection in rural Jamaican primary school children Euro J Clin Nutr. 51: 729-735, 1997

100. Grantham-McGregor SM & Fernald LC. Nutritional deficiencies and subsequent effects on mental and behavioural development in children. Southeast Asian Tropl Med Pub Hlth. 23: 50-68, 1997

101. Fernald LC, Ani C & Grantham-McGregor SM. Does school breakfast benefit children’s performance? Africa Health. 19: 19-20, 1997

102. Grantham-McGregor SM, Chang S, Walker SP. Evaluation of school feeding programmes: some Jamaican examples. Amer J Clin Nutr 67:785S-789S, 1998.

103. Ani C. & Grantham-McGregor SM. Risk factors for aggressiveness in primary school children in Lagos, Nigeria. J Adol Health 23: 311-317, 1998

104. Grantham-McGregor SM, Lira PIC, Ashworth A, Morris SS & Assuncao MAS. The development of low birth weight term infants and the effects of the environment in North-East Brazil. J Pediat 32:661-666,1998

105. Ashworth A, Morris SS, Lira PIC & Grantham-McGregor SM. Zinc supplementation, mental development and behaviour in low birth weight infants. Euro J Clin Nutr 52:223-227,1998

106. Walker SP, Powell CA, Hutchinson SE, Chang SM & Grantham-McGregor SM. School children’s diet and participation in School feeding programmes in Jamaica. Pub Hlth Nutr 1:43-49 1998

107. Walker SP, Grantham-Mcgregor SM, Himes JH, Powell CA , Williams S & Duff EM. School performance in adolescence Jamaican girl: associations with health, social and behavioural characteristics. J Adolesc Hlth 21:109-122,1998

108. Grantham-McGregor SM, . Small for gestational age, term babies, in the first six years of life. Euro J Clin Nutr.52:559-564, 1997

109. Powell CA, Grantham-McGregor SM, Walker SP & Chang SM. School breakfast benefits children’s nutritional status and school performance. Am J Clin Nutr 69:873-879, 1998

110. Ani C, Grantham-McGregor SM. Aggressive behaviour in childhood: An African perspective. Postgrad Doc;20:98-102, 1998.

111. Callender JE, Walker SP, Grantham-McGregor SM, Cooper ES. Growth and development four years after treatment for the Trichuris Dysentery Syndrome. Acta Paediat 87:1247-1249, 1998.

112. Fernald LC, Grantham-McGregor SM. Stress response in school age children who have been growth retarded since early childhood. Amer J Clin Nutr; 68:691-698, 1998.

113. Grantham-McGregor SM, Fernald LC. The effects of health and nutrition on cognitive and behavioural development in children in the first three years of life. Part 2: Infections and micronutrient deficiencies: iodine, iron and zinc. Food Nutr Bull 20: 76-99, 1999

114. Grantham-McGregor SM, Fernald LC. The effects of health and nutrition on cognitive and behavioural development in children in the first three years of life. Part 1: Low birth weight, breast feeding and protein-energy malnutrition. Food Nutr Bull 20: -75, 1999

115.Meeks-Gardner JM, Grantham-McGregor SM, Himes JH, Chang S. Behaviour and development of stunted and non-stunted Jamaican children. J Child Psychol Psychiat 40, 819-827, 1999

116. Huda SN,Grantham-McGregor SM, Rahman KM, Tomkins A. Biochemical Hypothyroidism Secondary to Iodine Deficiency is Associated with Poor School Achievement and Cognition in Bangladeshi Children. J Nutr 129:980-987,1999

117. Morris SS, Grantham-McGregor SM, Lira PIC, Assuncao AMS, Ashworth,A. Effect of breast feeding and morbidity on the development of low birthweight term babies in Brasil. Acta Paediatr 88: 1-6, 1999

118. Grantham-McGregor SM, Ani C. The role of micronutrients in psychomotor and cognitve development. Brit Med Bull vol 55:511-527, 1999

119. McGann-M; Grantham-McGregor-S; McCaw-Binns-A. Health research in the commonwealth Caribbean.West-Indian-Med-J. 48(4): 188-94 (1999)

120. Socrates C, Grantham-McGregor SM, Seale A, Harkness S. The nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy in the Phillipines. J International Rehabilitation Research 23:2000

121. Grantham-McGregor SM, Walker SP, Chang S. Undernutrition and later development. Proc Nut Soc 59:47-54 (2000)

122.Gaskin P, Walker S, Forrester T, Grantham-McGregor S. Early linear growth retardation and later blood pressure. Europ J Clin Nutr 54:563-7,2000

123. Al Serouri A, Grantham-McGregor S, Greenwood B, Costello A. Impact of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia on the cognitive function of schoolchildren in the Yemen Republic. Parasitology Parasitology 121:337-345, 2000

124. Walker SP, Grantham-McGregor SM, Powell CP, Chang SM. Effects of stunting in early childhood on growth, IQ and cognition at age 11-12 years and the benefits of nutritional supplementation. J Pediatr. 137(1): 36-41 (2000)

125. Ani C, Grantham-McGregor SM, Muller D. Nutritional supplementation in Downs syndrome: Theoretical considerations and current status. Dev Med Child Neurol.42: 207-213, 2000

126. Huda SN, Grantham-McGregor SM, Tomkins A. A randomised controlled trial of iodized poppy-seed oil (Lipiodol) on cognitive and motor functions of iodine deficient children in Bangladesh. J Nutr 131:72-77, 2000

127. Grantham-McGregor SM, Ani C. A review of studies on the effect of iron deficiency on cognitive development in children. J Nutr 131: 649-668, 2001

128. Walker S P, Gaskin P, Powell CA, Bennett FI, Forrester TE, Grantham-McGregor S. The effects of birth weight and postnatal linear growth retardation on blood pressure at age 11-12 years. J Epidem Com Hlth 55, 394-398, 2001

129. Hamadani J, Fuchs G, Osendarp S, Khatun F, Huda S, Grantham-McGregor S. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of zinc supplementation on the mental development of Bangladeshi infants Amer J Clin Nutr 74: 381-386 2001

130. Makame V, Ani C, Grantham-McGregor SM. Psychological well being of orphans in Dar El Salaam, Tanzania. Acta Pediat 91: 1-7, 2002

131. Hamadani J, Fuchs G, Osendarp S, Huda S, Grantham-McGregor S. Zinc supplementation during pregnancy and effects on mental development and behavior of the infants: a randomized placebo controlled trial. Lancet 360: 290-294, 2002

132. Grantham-McGregor S. Linear growth retardation and cognition. Lancet 359: 542, 2002 (Commentary)

133. Chang S, Walker S, Grantham-McGregor SM, Powell CA Early childhood stunting and later school achievement and behaviour J Child Psychol Psychiat 2002

134. Fernald L, Grantham-McGregor S Growth retardation is associated with changes in the stress response system and behavior in school-aged Jamaican children J Nutr 132: (12) 3674-36749, 2002

135. Baker-Henningham H, Powell C, Walker S, Grantham-McGregor S. Mothers of undernourished Jamaican children have poorer psychosocial functioning and this is associated with stimulation provided in the home. E J Clin Nutr 57: 786-792, 2003

136. Fernald L, Grantham-McGregor SM, Manandhar DS, Costello A. Salivary cortisol and heart rate in stunted and non-stunted Nepalese school children E J Clin Nutr 57, 1458-1465, 2003

137. Grantham-Mcgregor SM Does iron deficiency anemia affect child development? Pediat (Commentary) 2003

138. Grantham-McGregor SM. Uses of error: Learning the hard way. The Lancet 361:1044, 2003.

139. Meeks Gardner J, Walker SP, Powell C, Grantham-McGregor S. Meeks Gardner J, Walker SP, Powell C, Grantham-McGregor S. A randomized controlled trial of the effects of a home-visiting intervention on cognition and behaviour in term low birth weight infants J Pediat 143,634-639, 2003

140. S P. Walker, S M Chang, C A Powell, S M Grantham-McGregor. Pyschosocial intervention improves the development of term low birth weight infants. J Nutr 134, 1417-1423, 2004

141. C Powell, H Baker-Henningham, S Walker, J Gernay, S Grantham-McGregor Integrating early stimulation into primary health care services for undernourished Jamaican children: a randomised controlled trial. BMJ dOI:10.1136/bmj.38132.503472.7C (published on line June 24, 2004

142. Grantham-McGregor S. Can the provision of breakfast benefit school performance? Food Nutr Bull 26, 144-158, 2005

143. Grantham-McGregor S, Baker-Henningham H. Review of evidence linking protein and energy to mental development. Pub Hlth Nutr 8, (7B), 1-12, 2005

144. Meeks Gardner J, Powell CA, Baker-Henningham H, Walker SP, Cole TJ, Grantham-McGregor SM. Zinc supplementation and psychosocial stimulation: effects on the development of undernourished Jamaican children. Amer J Clin Nutr 82 (2):399-405, 2005

145. Walker SP, Chang S, Powell CA, Grantham-McGregor SM. Effects of early childhood stunting on cognitive and educational outcomes at age 17-18 years and long term benefits of psychosocial stimulation. Lancet 366; 1804-1807, 2005

146. Baker-Henningham H, Powell C, Walker S, Grantham-McGregor S. The effect of early stimulation on maternal depression: A cluster randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child 90;1230-1234 , 2005

147. Emond A M, Lira PI, Lima M C, Grantham-McGregor SM, Ashworth A. Development of low birth weight term infants at 8 years in northeast Brazil: a longitudinal study. Acta Pediat 2006 Oct;95(10):1249-57

148. Hamadani J D, Huda S N, Khatun F, Grantham-McGregor SM. Psychosocial stimulation improves the development of malnourished children in rural Bangladesh. J Nutr. 2006;136 2645-2652

149. Walker S P, Chang-Lopez S M, Powell C A, Simonoff E, Grantham-McGregor SM. Psychosocial functioning in late adolescence in stunted and non-stunted Jamaican children and the impact of early childhood stimulation and supplementation. BMJ Sep 2;333(7566):472. E pub 2006 Jul 28.

150. Grantham-McGregor SM, Olney D. School feeding, cognition and school achievement. Clin Nutr 2006 15:1-7

151. Grantham-McGregor SM, Cheung YB, Cueto S, Glewwe P, Richter L, Strupp B and International Child Development Steering Group (Engle P, Black M, Meeks Gardner J, Lozoff B, Wachs T, Walker S). Child development in developing countries 1. Developmental potential in the first five years for children in developing countries. Lancet 2007 369: 60-70

152. Walker SP, Wachs T, Meeks Gardner J, Lozoff B, Wasserman GA, Pollitt E, Carter JA, International Child Development Steering Group (Grantham-McGregor S, Engle P, Black M). Child development in developing countries

153. Child development: Risk factors for adverse outcomes in developing countries. Lancet 2007 369: 145-157

154. Grantham-McGregor S, Engle P, Black M, Meeks Gardner J, Lozoff B, Wachs T, Walker S. Early Child development in developing countries. Lancet (letter) 2007 Mar 10;369(9564):824.

155. SP Walker, SM Chang,CA Powell,E Simonoff, S M Grantham-McGregor.Childhood Stunting Is Associated with Poor Psychological Functioning in Late Adolescence and Effects Are Reduced by Psychosocial Stimulation. J. Nutr. 137: 2464–2469, 2007.

156. Meeks Gardner JM, Powell CA, Grantham-McGregor SM. Determinants of aggressive and prosocial behaviour among Jamaican schoolboys.West Indian Med J. 2007 Jan;56(1):34-41

157. F Tofail, L Persson, S E Arifeen, J D Hamadani , F Mehrin, D Ridout, E Ekström , S N Huda, S M Grantham-McGregor. Effect of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on infants' development: A randomised trial from MINIMat study. Amer J Clin Nutr . 2008 Mar;87(3):704-11

158. Black MM, Walker SP, Wachs TD, Ulkuer N, Gardner JM, Grantham-McGregor S, Lozoff B, Engle PL, de Mello MC. Policies to reduce undernutrition include child development. Lancet. 2008 Feb 9;371(9611):454-5.

159. Nahar B, Hamadani JD, Ahmed T, Tofail F, Rahman A, Huda SN, Grantham-McGregor SM. Effects of psychosocial stimulation on growth and development of severely malnourished children in a nutrition unit in Bangladesh. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Sep 3

160. Tofail F, Vahter M, Hamadani J D, Nermell B, Huda S N, Yunus M, Rahman M, Grantham-McGregor S M. Effect of Arsenic Exposure during Pregnancy on Infant Development at Seven Months in Rural Matlab, Bangladesh. Environmental Health Perspectives doi: 10.1289/eph.11670 online October 24 2008

161. Baker-Henningham H, Hamadani JD, Huda SN, Grantham-McGregor SM. Undernourished children have different temperaments than better nourished children in rural Bangladesh. J Nutr. 2009 Sep;139(9):1765-71. Epub 2009 Jul 15

162. Hamadani JD, Grantham-McGregor SM, Tofail F, Nermell B, Fängström B, Huda SN, Yesmin S, Rahman M, Vera-Hernández M, Arifeen SE, Vahter M. Pre- and postnatal arsenic exposure and child development at 18 months of age: a cohort study in rural Bangladesh. Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Jan 19. [Epub ahead of print]

163. Walker SP, Chang SM, Younger N, Grantham-McGregor SM. The effect of psychosocial stimulation on cognition and behaviour at 6 years in a cohort of term, low-birthweight Jamaican children. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2010 Jul;52(7):e148-54. Epub 2010 Feb 24

164. Hamadani JD, Baker-Henningham H, Tofail F, Mehrin F, Huda SN, Grantham-McGregor SM. Validity and reliability of mothers' reports of language development in 1-year-old children in a large-scale survey in Bangladesh. Food Nutr Bull. 2010 Jun;31(2 Suppl):S198-206.

165. Chang SM, Walker SP, Grantham-McGregor S, Powell CA. Early childhood stunting and later fine motor abilities. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2010 Sep;52(9):831-6. Epub 2010 Mar 19.

166. Hamadani JD, Tofail F, Hilaly A, Huda SN, Engle P, Grantham-McGregor SM. Use of family care indicators and their relationship with child development in Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr. 2010 Feb;28(1):23-33.

167. Walker SP, Wachs TD, Grantham-McGregor S, Black MM, Nelson CA, Huffman SL,Baker-Henningham H, Chang SM, Hamadani JD, Lozoff B, Gardner JM, Powell CA, Rahman A, Richter L. Inequality in early childhood: risk and protective factors for early child development. Lancet. 2011 Sep 22. [Epub ahead of print]

168. Manno D, Kowa PK, Bwalya HK, Siame J, Grantham-McGregor S, Baisley K, De Stavola BL, Jaffar S, Filteau S. Rich micronutrient fortification of locally produced infant food does not improve mental and motor development of Zambian infants: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2011 Jul 5:1-11. [Epub ahead of print] Pub Med PMID: 21733297.

169. Walker SP, Chang SM, Vera-Hernández M, Grantham-McGregor S. Early childhood stimulation benefits adult competence and reduces violent behavior. Pediatrics. 2011 May;127(5):849-57. Epub 2011 Apr 25.

170. Limbo P, Baker-Henningham H, Grantham-McGregor SM. Factors associated with internalising problems in orphans and their caretakers in rural Mozambique. East African Med Journal 2011 April; 319-326.

171. Nahar B, Hossain MI, Hamadani JD, Ahmed T, Huda SN, Grantham-McGregor SM, Persson LA. Effects of a community-based approach of food and psychosocial stimulation on growth and development of severely malnourished children in Bangladesh: a randomised trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Feb 22. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.13. [Epub ahead of print]

172. Nahar Baitun, Hossain Md Iqbal, Hamadani D Jena, Ahmed Tahmeed, Grantham-McGregor Sally, Persson Lars-Ake, Effects of psychosocial stimulation on improving home environment and child-rearing practices: results from a community-based trial among severely malnourished children in Bangladesh. BMC Public Health .2012, 12:622.

173. Kippler M, Tofail F, Hamadani JD, Gardner RM, Grantham-McGregor SM, Bottai M, Vahter M. Early-life cadmium exposure and child development in 5-year-old girls and boys: a cohort study in rural Bangladesh. Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Oct;120(10):1462-8.

174. Hamadani JD, Tofail F, Cole T, Grantham-McGregor S. The relation between age of attainment of motor milestones and future cognitive and motor development in Bangladeshi children. Matern Child Nutr. 2013 Jan;9 Suppl 1:89-104.

175. Tofail F, Hamadani JD, Mehrin F, Ridout DA, Huda SN, Grantham-McGregor SM. Psychosocial stimulation benefits development in nonanemic children but not in anemic, iron-deficient children. J Nutr. 2013 Jun;143(6):885-93.

176. Black R E, Victora C G, Walker S P, Bhutta Z A, Christian P, de Onis M, Ezzati M, Grantham-McGregor S, Katz J, Martorell R, Uauy R, and the Maternal and Child Nutrition Study Group. Maternal and Child Nutrition 1. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. The Lancet 2013 Aug 3;382(9890):427-51.

177. Grantham-McGregor, S M,. Fernald, L C. H. Kagawa, R M. C, Walker SP. Effects of integrated child development and nutrition interventions on child development and nutritional status. Annals of New York Acad Science 2014; 11- 32

178. Alderman H, Behrman JR, Grantham-McGregor S, Lopez-Boo F, Urzua S. Economic perspectives on integrating early child stimulation with nutritional interventions. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2014:129-138

179. Nahar B, Hossain I, Hamadani JD, Ahmed T, Grantham-McGregor S, Persson LA. Effect of a food supplementation and psychosocial stimulation trial for severely malnourished children on the level of maternal depressive symptoms in Bangladesh. Child Care Health Dev. 2014 Jul 4. doi: 0.1111/cch.12176. [Epub ahead of print]

180. Gertler P, Heckman J, Pinto R, Zanolini A, Vermeersch C, Walker S, Chang SM, Grantham-McGregor S. Labor market returns to an early childhood stimulation intervention in Jamaica. Science. 2014 May 30;344(6187):998-1001.

181. Attanasio O, Fernández C, Fitzsimons E, Grantham-McGregor SM, Meghir C, Rubio-Codina M.Using the infrastructure of a conditional cash transfer programme to deliver a scalable integrated early child development programme in Colombia: a cluster randomised controlled trial1 BMJ 2014 Sep 29;349:g5785. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g5785.

182. Hamadani JD, Tofail F, Huda SN, Alam DS, Ridout DA, Attanasio O, Grantham-McGregor SM. Cognitive deficit and poverty in the first 5 years of childhood in Bangladesh. Pediatrics. 2014 Oct;134(4):e1001-8.

183. Rubio-Codina M, Attanasio O, Meghir C, Varela N, Grantham-McGregor S. The Socioeconomic Gradient of Child Development: Cross-Sectional Evidence from Children 6–42 Months in Bogota. J Human Resources 2015, 50;2; 464-483

184. Walker SP, Chang SM, Wright A, Osmond C, Grantham-McGregor SM. Early childhood stunting is associated with lower developmental levels in the subsequent generation of children. J Nutr. 2015 Apr;145(4):823-8.

185.Grantham-McGregor S and Walker S. The Jamaican early childhood home visiting intervention in A Good Start: Advances in Early Childhood Development. Early Childhood Matters. Editor J Lombardi June 2015 p28-35, pub Bernard van Leer Foundation

186. Chang SM, Grantham-McGregor SM, Powell CA, Vera-Hernández M, Lopez-Boo F, Baker-Henningham H, Walker SP. Integrating a Parenting Intervention With Routine Primary Health Care: A Cluster Randomized Trial. Pediatrics. 2015 Aug;136(2):272-80. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-0119. Epub 2015 Jul 6

187. Rubio-Codina, M, Attanasio O, Grantham-McGregor S. Mediating pathways in the socio-economic gradient of child development: Evidence from children 6–42 months in Bogota. International Journal of Behavioral Development 2016 DOI: 10.1177/0165025415626515

188. Rubio-Codina M, Caridad Araujo M, Attanasio O, Muñoz P, Grantham-McGregor S. Concurrent Validity and Feasibility of Short Tests Currently Used to Measure Early Childhood Development in Large Scale Studies PLOS ONE 2016 Aug 22;11(8):e0160962. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160962.

189. Grantham-McGregor S What is the best design for early childhood interventions? Dev Med Child Neurol. 2016 Mar;58(3):222-3. doi: 10.1111/dmcn.12951.

190. Maureen M. Black, Susan P. Walker, Lia C. H. Fernald, Christopher T. Andersen, Ann M. DiGirolamo, Chunling Lu, Dana Charles McCoy, Günther Fink, Yusra Ribhi Shawar, Jeremy Shiffman, Amanda E. Devercelli, Quentin T. Wodon, Emily Vargas-Baron, and Sally Grantham-McGregor. Early Child Development Coming of Age: Science Through the Life-Course The Lancet. 2016 Oct 3. pii: S0140-6736(16)31389-7. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31389-7.

191. Grantham-McGregor, S and Smith, J A. "Extending The Jamaican Early Childhood Development Intervention," Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk: (2016) Vol. 7 : Iss. 2 , Article 4. Available at:

192. Hasan MI, Hossain SJ, Braat S, Dibley MJ, Fisher J, Grantham-McGregor S, Tofail F, Simpson JA, Arifeen SE, Hamadani J, Biggs BA, Pasricha SR. Benefits and risks of Iron interventions in children (BRISC): protocol for a three-arm parallel-group randomised controlled field trial in Bangladesh. BMJ Open. 2017 Nov 15;7(11):e018325. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018325

193. A Andrew, O Attanasio,E Fitzsimons, S Grantham-McGregor, C Meghir, M Rubio-Codina Impacts 2 years after a scalable early childhood development intervention to increase psychosocial stimulation in the home: A follow-up of a cluster randomised controlled trial in Colombia Plos Med April 24, 2018

194. S. P. Walker ,H. Baker-Henningham,S. M. Chang,C. A. Powell,F. Lopez-Boo & S. Grantham-Mcgregor Implementation of parenting interventions through health services in Jamaica Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies Volume 13, 2018 - Issue 2. 2018

195. Hamadani JD, Mehrin SF, Tofail F, Hasan MI, Huda SN, Baker-Henningham H, Ridout D, Grantham-McGregor S. Integrating an early childhood development programme into Bangladeshi primary health-care services: an open-label, cluster-randomised controlled trial.Lancet Glob Health. 2019 Mar;7(3):e366-e375.

196. Rubio-Codina M, Grantham-McGregor S. Evolution of the wealth gap in child development and mediating pathways: evidence from a longitudinal study in Bogota, Colombia. Dev Sci. 2019 Feb 11:e12810. doi: 10.1111/desc.12810.

197. Alison Andrew, . Orazio Attanasio, Britta Augsburg , Monimalika Day, Sally Grantham-McGregor, Costas Meghir, Fardin Mehrin , Smriti Pahwa , Marta Rubio-Codina. ,Effects of a scalable home visiting intervention on child development in slums of urban India: RCT evidence. J Child Psychol Psychiat 2019 Dec 3. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.13171. 2019

198. Hamadani JD, Baker-Henningham H, Tofail F, Mehrin SF, Grantham-McGregor S. Learning opportunities and responsive caregiving. Lancet Glob Health. 2019 Jun;7(6):e709. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(19) 30191-3.

199. Boggs D, Milner KM, Chandna J, Black M, Cavallera V, Dua T, Fink G, Kc A, Grantham-McGregor S, Hamadani J, Hughes R, Manji K, McCoy DC, Tann C, Lawn JE. Rating early child development outcome measurement tools for routine health programme use. Arch Dis Child. 2019 Apr;104(Suppl 1):S22-S33

200. Weber AM, Rubio-Codina M, Walker S, van Buuren S, Eekhout I, Grantham-McGregor SM, et al. The D-score: a metric for interpreting the early development of infants and toddlers across global settings. BMJ Global Health 2019;0:e001724. doi:10.1136/ bmjgh-2019-001724 2001.

201. Rubio-Codina M, Grantham-McGregor S. Predictive validity in middle childhood of short tests of early childhood development used in large scale studies compared to the Bayley-III, the Family Care Indicators, height-for-age, and stunting: A longitudinal study in Bogota, Colombia. PLOS One. 2020; 15(4): e0231317. Published online 2020 Apr 29. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0231317

202. Hamadani JD, Hasan MI, Baldi AJ, Hossain SJ, Shiraji S, Bhuiyan MSA, Mehrin SF, Fisher J, Fahmida Tofail F, S M Tipu MU, Grantham-McGregor S, Biggs B, Braat S, Pasricha S.Immediate impact of stay-at-home orders to control COVID-19 transmission on socioeconomic conditions, food insecurity, mental health, and intimate partner violence in Bangladeshi women and their families: an interrupted time series Lancet Glob Health 2020; published online Aug 25.

203. Grantham-McGregor S, Adya A, Attanasio O, et al. Group Sessions or Home Visits for Early Childhood Development in India: A Cluster RCT. Pediatrics In press

Chapters in Books: selected from 2010

1. Grantham-McGregor S, Baker-Henningham H. Iron Deficiency In Childhood: Causes And Consequences For Child Development. In: Iron in Infancy and Childhood, Annales Nestlé Vol. 68, No. 3, 2010:

2. Grantham-McGregor S, Baker-Henningham H, Walker SP. 2010. Early Child Development in Developing Countries: The Role of Nutrition and Stimulation. In: Inclusive Early Childhood Development: an Underestimated Component within Poverty Reduction. Ed G Weigt, Behinderung und Entwicklungszusammenarbeit Pub 2011 pp48-66

3. Grantham-McGregor S, Osendarp S, Sergi D, Williams LM. Nutrition and the Nervous System. Chapter 24 in Human Nutrition eds Geissler & Powers, 2016 Oxford University Press; Oxford (2016)

4. Grantham-McGregor S and Smith J. The Effect Of Malnutrition And Micronutrient Deficiency On Children’s Mental Health. In: Mental Health and Illness World Wide: Mental Health and Illness in Children and Adolescence. Eds: Taylor, E., Verhulst, F.C., Wong, J., Yoshida, K. Pub: Springer Singapore 2020